When you hear the name “Transvaal”, you might think of The Hague or Leiden. Both of those cities have neighbourhoods with that name, after all. However, Transvaal used to be a province in South Africa between 1910 and 1994. The province was founded by Dutch settlers and was considered one of the Boer republics until 1902. Boer republics operated separately from the rest of South Africa. In 1902 the province would become part of the British empire as a colony. This would last until 1910. From country, to colony, to province, to not-so-ancient history. Transvaal in Leiden also has a rich history though.